Energy Conservation

Pursuant to the IMPLEMENTING RULES AND REGULATIONS OF ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NUMBER 110 DIRECTING THE INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF AN ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM (GEMP) particularly in accordance with Section 1.3 (c) as amended and pursuant to the policy objectives of Administrative Order Nos. 103 (s. 2004) and 126 (s. 2005) aimed to address the increasing world oil prices through the adherence to the government's energy conservation program, the following rules and regulations are hereby adopted and promulgated for the MARIANO MARCOS STATE UNIVERSITY, a state institution of higher learning with head offices in the City of Batac, Ilocos Norte, Philippines.

  1. Electricity
    1. Use of CFL and slim type fluorescent lamps.
    2. Room setting temperature not lower than 25 degrees centigrade.
    3. Operate air-con only from 9 to 4pm.
    4. Air leakage/infiltration.
    5. Air-con setting (at fan mode) during lunch time.
    6. Turn-off computers/equipment/appliances when not in use.
    7. Second floor elevator service bypassed.
    8. Lighting Power Density.
    9. Building Power Density (Conditioned Areas).
    10. Electric Utility Bill (Readily available).
    11. Percent Energy Savings generated for the past year.

  2. Fuel
    1. Inventory list and assignment of government service vehicles to particular official.
    2. Monthly fuel consumption report/record.
    3. Preventive maintenance schedule of service vehicles including repairs.
    4. Records of daily entry and dispatch of service vehicles from motorpool.
    5. Records of Trip Tickets for each service vehicle.
    6. Idling of engines while waiting and/or parking.
    7. Fuel conservation Program.

    1. Air conditioners are switched on at 9:00 AM and switched off at 4:00 PM except for computers laboratory classes.
    2. Aircon Units are switched at fan mode during lunch break (12:00 – 1:00 PM).
    3. The thermostat is working and set to not lower than 25°C (about half of the setting)
    4. Air-conditioned offices (areas) are well insulated from direct sunlight of heat and automatic door closer are installed.
    5. The ACU are cleaned and maintained regularly.
    6. The unit has and Energy saving Plug (ESP) and was used. This device works in tandem with a fan and timer.
    1. Electric fans are switched off when not in use (Faculty members should see to it that these are switched off after every class.
    2. If cooling is desired in one direction only, the oscillator is locked where the fan is needed except for ceiling fan.
    3. If comfortable enough the fan is set to “low”.
    4. Exhaust fans are switched off while the ACU were in operation.
    1. All incandescent lamps are changed to compact fluorescent lamps (CFL)
    2. Lighting fixtures (reflectors, luminaries) are cleaned regularly.
    3. Busted fluorescent lamps are replaced or remove.
    4. Lights are be switched off or reduced where there is natural light.
    5. Fluorescent lamps are replaced from 40W to 32W.
    1. Computers should strictly for official purposes only.
    2. Computers are switched off when not in use (both CPU and monitor) or set to energy-saving mode.
    3. Playing computer games or playing music in PC should be prohibited.
    4. The use of the Windows XP screensaver is recommended to minimize energy consumption.
    5. LaserJet printers are advisable not be turned off if it will be use again later on.
    1. Refrigerators (except when necessary) are switched off during weekends/holidays and long vacations.
    2. Ovens and electric stoves in offices are prohibited except during laboratory activities.
    3. Watching TV is not allowed during office hours except for Instructional purposes.

Transportation Policy


Order-Vehicle Use Guide

University Order

Use of vehicles

Waste Management
  1. Creation of the UWM Committee in 2009 through an Special Order issued by the University President.
  2. The UWM program was formulated and approved by the University Board of Regents in the same year (2009).
  2. Waste of the University continues to be a problem if appropriate waste management technologies and practices are inadequate. Practices which include poorly controlled open dumps, burning, backyard and illegal roadside dumping, can spoil scenic and aesthetic resources, can contaminate or pollute soil and water resources, and can produce potential health hazards. It is quite sad to note that these practices are still existing and prevalent in the University. Most people may not be aware that these practices can cause environmental problems. Worst, people may not be aware that wastes disposal is a tremendous waste of resources, more so if what is dumped could be recycled, reused or recovered. The environmentally correct concept on waste management is to consider wastes as resources that could be reused, recycled and processed. It may not be too soon that we could recycle and reuse all wastes but it is apparent that the increasing costs of raw materials of different products, energy, transportation, etc, will push us to find appropriate and feasible technologies of recycling and reusing more resources. Moving toward this objective is moving toward an environmental view that there is no such thing as wastes. Wastes could be minimized or could not exist at all because wastes are considered as resources to be used again. This should be the ultimate guiding principle of the University towards zero waste movement.

    However, attaining the goal of zero waste movement could only be realized if there are appropriate waste management strategies to be developed, environmentally correct practices to be instituted, and be shown as economically feasible, environmentally viable and socially acceptable, hence, this program.

  4. At the national level, there are a number of different legal instruments that explicitly mandates government agencies to create a sound waste management program. The Environmental Code of the Philippines (PD No. 1152) is still one of the valid general environmental laws of the Philippines that has legislation on waste management. The following are some provisions of the legislation:

    Environmental Code of the Philippines
    (PD NO. 1152)
    Title V – Waste Management

    Section 42. Purpose:

    1. To set guidelines for waste management with a view to ensuring its effectiveness;
    2. To encourage, promote and stimulate technological, educational, economic and social efforts to prevent environmental damage and unnecessary loss of valuable resources of the nation through recovery, recycling, and reuse of wastes and waste products; and
    3. To provide measures to guide and encourage appropriate government agencies in establishing sound, efficient, comprehensive, and effective waste management.

    Chapter I – Enforcement and Guidelines

    Section 43. Waste Management Programs – Preparation and implementation of waste management programs shall be required of all provinces, cities and municipalities. The Department of Local Government and Community Development shall promulgate guidelines for the formulation and establishment of waste management programs.

    Every waste management program shall include the following:

    1. An orderly system of operation consistent with the needs of the area concerned;
    2. A provision that the operation will not create pollution of any kind or will constitute public nuisance;
    3. A system for safe and sanitary disposal of waste;
    4. A provision that existing plans affecting development, use, and protection of air, water, or natural resources shall be considered;
    5. Schedules and methods of implementing the development, construction, and operation of the plan together with the estimated costs; and
    6. A provision for the periodic revision of the program to ensure its effective implementation.

    Chapter II – Methods of Solid Waste Disposal

    Section 45. Solid Waste Disposal – solid waste disposal shall be by sanitary landfill, incineration, composting and other methods as may be approved by competent government authority.

    The provisions of the Environmental Code of the Philippines (PD 1152) on Waste Management are further amplified by the provisions of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2001 (RA 9003). Some of the basic provisions of the Act t are the following:

    Ecological Solid Waste Management Act (RA 9003)
    Chapter II – Basic Policies
    Article 1
    Article Provisions

    Section 2. Declaration of Policies - It is hereby declared the policy of the State to adopt a systematic, comprehensive and ecological solid waste management program which shall:

    1. Ensure the protection of the public health and environment;
    2. Utilize environmentally-sound methods that maximize the utilization of valuable resources and encourage resource conservation and recovery;
    3. Set guidelines and targets for solid waste avoidance and volume reduction through source reduction and waste minimization measures, including composting, recycling, re-use, recovery, green charcoal process, and others, before collection, treatment and disposal in appropriate and environmentally sound solid waste management facilities in accordance with ecologically sustainable development principles;
    4. Ensure the proper segregation, collection, transport, storage, treatment and disposal of solid waste through the formulation and adoption of the best environmental practice in ecological waste management excluding incineration;
    5. Promote national research and development programs for improved solid waste management and resource conservation techniques, more effective institutional arrangement and indigenous and improved methods of waste reduction, collection, separation and recovery;
    6. Encourage greater private sector participation in solid waste management;
    7. Retain primary enforcement and responsibility of solid waste management with local government units while establishing a cooperative effort among the national government, other local government units, non- government organizations, and the private sector;
    8. Encourage cooperation and self-regulation among waste generators through the application of market-based instruments;
    9. Institutionalize public participation in the development and implementation of national and local integrated, comprehensive, and ecological waste management programs; and
    10. Strength the integration of ecological solid waste management and resource conservation and recovery topics into the academic curricula of formal and non-formal education in order to promote environmental awareness and action among the citizenry.

    Chapter II – Institutional Mechanisms

    Section 10. Role of LGUs in Solid Waste Management - Pursuant to the relevant provisions of R.A. No. 7160, otherwise known as the Local government code, the LGUs shall be primarily responsible for the implementation and enforcement of the provisions of this Act within their respective jurisdictions.

  1. Objectives
  2. Main Objectives
    To develop an implementable and doable integrated waste management program of the University consistent with the provisions of existing laws such as the Environmental Code of the Philippines (PD 1152), the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act (RA 9003), and other related laws.
    Specific Objectives

    1. To promote waste management awareness and participations of all constituents (personnel and students);
    2. To identify and involve waste management coordinators per unit;
    3. To develop waste management strategies to be implemented;
    4. To identify and involve entities/unit responsible for each waste flow or waste management strategy
    5. Promulgate appropriate rules, guidelines and policies concerning the implementation of the integrated waste management program
  1. Committee Organization Structure
  2. The MMSU Integrated Waste Management Program shall be formed by a Committee, hereafter referred to as the University Waste Management Committee under the Office of the University President. With the Chairperson and the two Members designated by the University President, the Committee shall be further composed of deans/directors/heads, unit/college coordinators, and support services, who will be recommended by the Committee to the President for their designation (Please see attached organization Structure, Figure 1).

  3. Powers and Functions of the Committee
  4. a. Prepare the University integrated waste management program framework;

    b. Recommend to the President the approval of the plans of the integrated waste management program in accordance with its rules and regulations;

    c. Review and monitor the implementation of the integrated waste management program;

    d. Develop a mechanism for the imposition of sanctions for the violations on waste management and environmental rules and regulations;

    e. Formulate the necessary information, education, communication (IEC) and promotion campaign strategies;

    f. Encourage all constituents to reduce, segregate wastes and patronize products that are recyclable and biodegradable in nature;

    g. Propose and adopt regulations requiring the source separation and post separation collection, segregated collection, processing, marketing and sale of organic and designated recyclable material generated in each unit; and

    h. Study, review and propose the following:
    - Standards, criteria and guidelines for promulgation and implementation of an integrated waste management framework; and
    - Criteria and guidelines for siting, design, operation and maintenance of solid waste management facilities.

  5. Functions of the Committee Members
  6. Chairperson

    1. Directly responsible to the president on matters concerning on the integrated waste management of the University. He shall be responsible in furnishing/providing the President monthly reports on the progress, performance, problems, and other matters pertaining to the operation and implementation of the integrated waste management of the University;
    2. He shall directly coordinate with department heads, directors, and unit chiefs of the University with regards to the implementation of waste management policies, guidelines and strategies which could be promulgated;
    3. He shall preside over meetings with the members and other meetings as may be convened for the purpose of efficient and effective implementation of the integrated waste management;
    4. He shall act as the overall overseer of the waste management affairs of the University


    1. Assist the Chairman in matters of operation, implementation and promulgation of rules and regulations regarding the integrated waste management of the University;
    2. Shall suggest policies, rules and regulations for the efficient management of wastes in the University

    Deans, Directors, Unit Heads and Chiefs

    1. Shall act as the overseer of the waste management coordinators in their respective area;
    2. Shall be primarily responsible for the dissemination, implementation and enforcement of promulgated waste management policies within their respective jurisdictions;
    3. Shall report to the Chairman or committee members on problems of implementation, operation of the waste management program in their respective area;
    4. Provides necessary support for the proper implementation of the integrated waste management of the University;

    Coordinators - these shall composed of the personnel (i.e., janitors, farm workers) who are directly involved and responsible for the maintenance of clean environment in their respective areas. These shall have the following functions and responsibilities:

    1. Shall be responsible in the proper implementation of the waste management program consistent to rules, regulations and policies promulgated by the waste management committee in their respective area of responsibility:

      a. Collection of wastes to designated recovery bin

      b. Segregation of wastes

      c. Maintenance of clean environment in their area of responsibility

    2. Assist the collection team in loading the collected wastes during hauling time.
    3. Submit periodic reports to the Chairperson;
    4. Attend meetings as per convened by the Committee;
    5. Reports to the unit head, security forces or the committee chairperson on violations of waste management rules and regulations

Support Services

a. Motorpool

Assign or provide driver and dump truck to attend to the regular hauling of wastes from designated collection areas at designated time

b. Security Unit

Help enforce the waste management rules/policies/regulations
Apprehend violators and report violations not consistent to environmental and waste rules/policies or regulations

c. Ground Maintenance

Assign or provide the necessary manpower in collecting/hauling the collected wastes from designated recovery bins at designated time to disposal wastes area or centralized recovery facility.

d. Student Organizations – with the discretion of the OFFICERS, they may designate themselves as the waste management officers or they may create a waste management committee with the involvement of other members of the organization who shall have the following functions and responsibilities:

  1. To promote among their organizations good waste management practices
  2. To take the lead among their organizations in helping to implement waste management programs/projects initiated by the Committee;
  3. To help monitor and enforce in their respective organizations waste management rules and regulations/policies;
  4. To develop schemes in the imposition of sanctions/penalties to students who are apprehended violating waste management policies/rules;
  5. To coordinate to the Committee on waste management matters
  6. To attend meetings as per convened by the Committee
  7. To initiate waste management projects/initiatives in their respective organizations (i.e., periodic operation linis, student contests, etc)
  8. To identify waste management needs/problems in their respective area of coverage and initiate necessary solutions if capable (i.e. provisions of waste trash cans), otherwise the problem will be reported to the Committee for appropriate action;
  9. To conduct information, education and communication (IEC) campaign to their respective organization regarding this University Waste Management Program
  1. Integrated Waste Management Framework
  2. Figure 2 (please see attached figure) shows the framework as the implementation guide of the MMSU integrated waste management program. Discussions below parallel with that of the figure:

    1. Policies/Regulations – the MMSU Integrated Waste Management Program shall promulgate, implement and enforce the basic policies provided by the Republic Act 9003 or the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act. If deemed necessary, Institutional or internal policies consistent to the policies of the Act shall also be identified, promulgated and institutionalized to further amplify the implementation of the University waste management program.

    2. Information and Education Campaign - the program shall promote awareness among the University constituents through lectures, print ads or flyers. The program shall also strengthen the integration of ecological waste management and resource conservation and recovery topics into the academic curricula of formal and non-formal education in order to promote environmental awareness and action among the studentry. This could be incorporated in the curricula of the NSTP students which are to be lectured or disseminated by the NSTP in charge.

      Provision and Establishment of Recovery Bins – part of the program is also to identify appropriate strategic sites for the establishment of material recovery bins for each unit. Standardized bins will be design and established for this purpose. These bins serve as collection area for segregated wastes for each unit prior to their hauling and disposal to designated areas.
    3. Waste Minimization Strategies – where minimization of waste is possible, this should be observed. The program shall promote through brochures, flyers or lectures on possible wastes reduction strategies. There are materials that could be substituted to more environment-friendly yet biodegradable and recyclable materials.

    4. Waste Hauling and Segregation - All wastes should be segregated as early as possible at source. This is a direct responsibility of the waste management coordinators (janitors) who are supervised by their immediate supervisors. All non-biodegradable wastes should be directly hauled and disposed to dump site facilities. Bio-degradable materials (animal and plant origins) collected from each unit will be hauled to the Organic fertilizer processing collection area (Figure 3), while recyclable materials will be hauled to the centralized material recovery facility. Recyclable materials should be collected first in bulk prior to its sale to minimize transport costs. A centralized recovery bin will also be established for this purpose.

    5. Meetings - the committee shall meet at least once a month or as deemed necessary for the purpose of updating the operation and implementation status of the integrated waste management program. The Chairperson, or in his absence, the two members, shall be the presiding officer.

    6. University Waste Management Center – the committee shall establish a University Waste Management Center to provide consultation, information, training and networking services for the implementation of the integrated waste management program. The center shall also manage and maintain the waste management information data base. The center shall be managed by the committee headed by one member or as per identified and recommended by the committee to the University President.

    7. Others – to ensure its effective implementation, the program is subject to periodic revision in order to adapt to the continuous changing situations.
  1. Ecological Guiding Principles
  2. The design of the MMSU integrated waste management program want to encourage mutualistic and commensalistic relationships among stakeholders in order to make maximum use of inputs, products and wastes materials. The idea of the program is conceptually appealing but its practical implementation represents a challenging tasks. However, if we look at the waste management system, it is a resemblance of the ecosystem concept which is composed of interdependent assemblages of component parts, and each part has a functional relationship with the other. This is one of the basic ecological principles that we could learn from.

    Other ecological principles that we can learn from are the following:

    1. Waste is a resource
    2. One’s man wastes could be another man’s resource
    3. Waste disposal is a great waste of resource, more so if what is disposed could be recycled, reused and recovered
    4. The four laws of ecology formulated by ecologist Barry Commoner:
      1. Everything is connected to everything else - humans and other species are connected/dependant on a number of other species. This principle is best exemplified by the concept of the ecosystem. In an ecosystem, all biotic and amniotic components interact with each other to ensure that the system is perpetuated.
      2. Everything must go somewhere - no matter what you do, and no matter what you use, it has to go somewhere. For example, when you burn wood, it doesn't disappear, it turns into smoke which rises into the air, and ash, which falls back down to the earth. This is related to the second law of thermodynamics – energy can not be created nor destroyed.
      3. Nature knows best - this principle is the most basic and in fact encompasses all the others. Humans have to understand nature and have to abide by the rules nature dictates. In essence, one must not go against the natural processes if one would like to ensure a continuous and steady supply of resources.
      4. There is no such thing as a free lunch - Everything you do must have a reason behind it. This law basically means you have to do something in order to get something in return.

Water is essential for sustainable development and is critical for socio-economic development, healthy ecosystems and for human survival itself. It is vital for improving the health, welfare and productivity of populations. It is central to the production and preservation of a host of benefits and services for people. Water is also at the heart of adaptation to climate change, serving as the crucial link between the climate system, human society and the environment.

Water is a finite and irreplaceable resource that is fundamental to human well-being. It is only renewable if well managed. Water can pose a serious challenge to sustainable development but managed efficiently and equitably, water can play a key enabling role in strengthening the resilience of social, economic and environmental systems in the light of rapid and unpredictable changes.

Water Sustainability Programs

• Rain Water Harvesting through Small Farm Reservoirs

The average annual rainfall received at the university is about 2200 mm of which unevenly distributed from June to November and about 60% of the annual rainfall amount occurs in the month of August and September. Considering this unequal distribution of rainfall throughout the year, extreme drought is experience during the dry season. As such, there is a paradox of water availability. Thus, to ensure sustainable source of water through year, the university constructed several small reservoirs in the campus to collect surface water runoff and thus minimize flooding and promote groundwater recharge. The stored water is used for supplemental irrigation of rainfed lowland rice in wet season, irrigation of the dry season crop and fish production. Likewise, over the years the constructed small reservoirs has promoted groundwater recharge of shallow aquifers which are tap as source of irrigation of crops planted during dry season. The presence of small of reservoirs (Figure 1) has promoted crop diversification in the area and water to maintain the green landscape of the MMSU campus.

Figure 1. The rain water harvesting catchment beside the University Teatro Ilocandia inside the university main campus in Batac City serving as water reservoir for irrigation purposes and “charger” of deep wells.

• Innovative Irrigation Practices

Innovative irrigation practices can enhance water efficiency, gaining an economic advantage while also reducing environmental burdens. In recent years, the university promoted the use of drip and sprinkler irrigation systems as means to effective use the available water resource in the university while it maintains its conducive green environment.

The FEM garden in front of the administration building (Figure 2) was installed with sprinkler irrigation system. The system is fully automated and thus provide irrigation at the right time and delivering water evenly at the right amount matched to plants water demand. Overall, the system reduces the amount of the irrigation water while maintain a conducive green campus.

Figure 2. The FEM garden in front of the administration building watered by deep wells “charged” by the small water reservoirs established/built in strategic locations in the university main campus.

• Monitoring of groundwater in the MMSU campus

Monitoring of groundwater level of the different shallow tube wells installed within the university campus is regularly undertaken by the Department of Agricultural and Biosystem Engineering of MMSU. This is to ensure that groundwater resource is extracted within the safe yield of the aquifer system with the university campus. Below shows the groundwater level of the university campus in March 2018.